A martingale is a piece of tack to aid with control to prevent a horse from throwing it's head and evading the bit.

A running martingale has rings which the reins thread through so that if the horse lifts it's head too high some downward pressure is exerted.

A standing martingale uses the noseband to exert pressure if the head is raised too high

An Irish martingale does not effect the horse's head carriage but can prevent the reins from going over a horse's head should the rider fall

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